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All the systems of the body are interrelated and function ways to form small functional structures called organelles together grifulvin v 125 mg with visa, making up the organism buy generic grifulvin v 250mg. A cell’s nucleus purchase grifulvin v 250mg fast delivery, mitochondria, and endo- plasmic reticulum are organelles. The structure of cells and the functions of the organelles will be examined in detail in chapter 3. Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism Chapter 2 Body Organization and Anatomical Nomenclature 29 Increasing complexity Atom Molecule System Macromolecule Organelle Organ Cell Organism Tissue FIGURE 2. Growth is a normal process by which an organism increases of several systems can be observed simultaneously. Dissections of in size as a result of the accretion of cells and tissues similar to cadavers are usually conducted on a regional basis. Growth is an integral part of jury usually affects a region of the body, whereas a disease that af- development that continues until adulthood. In the several hormones (chemicals produced by endocrine glands), in- chapters that follow, you will become acquainted, system by sys- cluding insulin, growth hormone, and (during adolescence) the tem, with the functional anatomy of the entire body. It is through the growth process that each of the overview of the structure and function of each of the body sys- body systems eventually matures (fig. Construct a diagram to illustrate the levels of structural or- phasizes the purposes of various organs within a system. Which of these lev- ample, the functional role of the digestive system can be best els are microscopic? Which serve a gional approach has merit in graduate professional schools (med- transportive role? Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism 30 Unit 2 Terminology, Organization, and the Human Organism testosterone and other androgens FIGURE 2. Controlled by hormones, puberty is the period of body growth when sexual characteristics are expressed and the sexual organs become functional. The malleus and anvil resemble miniatures of a blacksmith’s implements, and tympa- Objective 6 Explain how anatomical terms are derived. You will encounter many new terms throughout your Objective 7 Describe what is meant by prefixes and suffixes. You can learn these terms more easily if you know the meaning of their prefixes and suffixes. Analyzing anatomical termi- glossary of prefixes and suffixes (on the inside front cover) as nology can be a rewarding experience in that one learns some- an aid in learning new terms. Pronouncing these terms as thing of the character of antiquity in the process. A guide understanding the roots of words is not only of academic interest. Most anatomical terms are derived from Greek or Latin, but The material presented in the remainder of this chapter some of the more recent terms are of German and French origin. Anatomy is a very precise science be- names of people who discovered or described them. Such terms cause of its universally accepted reference language for describing are totally nondescriptive; unfortunately, they have little mean- body parts and locations. Many Greek and Latin terms were coined more than 2,000 Knowledge Check years ago. Deciphering the meanings of these terms affords a glimpse into our medical heritage. Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism Chapter 2 Body Organization and Anatomical Nomenclature 31 Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system Function: external support Function: internal support and Function: body movement; and protection of body flexible framework for body production of body heat movement; production of blood cells; storage of minerals Lymphatic system Endocrine system Urinary system Function: body immunity; Function: secretion of Function: filtration of blood; absorption of fats; drainage hormones for maintenance of volume and of tissue fluid chemical regulation chemical composition of blood; removal of metabolic wastes from body FIGURE 2. Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism 32 Unit 2 Terminology, Organization, and the Human Organism Respiratory system Nervous system Circulatory system Function: gaseous exchange Function: control and Function: transport of between external environment regulation of all other life-sustaining materials to and blood systems of the body body cells; removal of metabolic wastes from cells Digestive system Function: breakdown and Female reproductive system Male reproductive system absorption of food materials Function: production of female Function: production of male sex cells (ova) and female sex cells (sperm) and male hormones; receptacle for hormones; transfer of sperm sperm from male; site for to reproductive system of fertilization of ovum, female implantation, and development of embryo and fetus; delivery of fetus FIGURE 2. Body Organization and © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Organization, and the Anatomical Nomenclature Companies, 2001 Human Organism Chapter 2 Body Organization and Anatomical Nomenclature 33 TABLE 2. Objective 8 Identify the planes of reference used to locate structures within the body. Transverse planes, also called horizontal, or cross-sectional, planes, divide the Objective 9 Describe the anatomical position. Objective 10 Define and be able to properly use the The value of the computerized tomographic X-ray (CT) scan descriptive and directional terms that refer to the body. Prior to the development of this tech- nique, the vertical plane of conventional radiographs made it difficult, Planes of Reference if not impossible, to assess the extent of body irregularities. A sagittal plane extends vertically through Anatomical Position the body dividing it into right and left portions.

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In fact generic grifulvin v 125mg on-line, the mother states that cerebellar cortex grifulvin v 125 mg without prescription, and at select places in the brainstem generic grifulvin v 250 mg overnight delivery. The symp- the girl cut her little finger, but did not realize it until she saw toms of these patients may include ataxia, paralysis, dysarthria, blood. The examination reveals a bilateral loss of pain and thermal and other clinical manifestations. This constellation of deficits is sensation on the upper extremities and shoulder. Which of the fol- most characteristically seen in which of the following? A 45-year-old man complains to his family physician that there seems 58. A 57-year-old obese man is brought to the emergency department to be something wrong with his mouth. The examination reveals that cranial nerve function is weakness of the masticatory muscles, a deviation of the jaw to the left normal but the man has bilateral weakness of his lower extremities. MRI shows a small infarcted area in the shows a tumor, presumably a trigeminal schwannoma, in the fora- general region of the cervical spinal cord-medulla junction. Compression of which of the following structures would of the following represents the most likely location of this lesion? A 49-year-old man visits his ophthalmologist with what the man everything” (diplopia). The history reveals that the woman becomes interprets as “trouble seeing”. The history reveals that the man had tired during the workday to the point where she frequently must leave a sudden event a few days before in which he felt sick and was nau- her workplace early. The man said his trouble “seeing” started after this sudden peared first, and later she noticed that, when she drank, it would “go sickness. The examination reveals a loss of abduction and adduc- down the wrong pipe”. The examination reveals weakness of the ocu- tion of the right eye and a loss of adduction of the left eye. MRI lar muscle, difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), and mild weakness of confirms an infarcted area in the caudal and medial pontine the upper extremities. Which of the following most specifically identifies indicate that the woman has a neurotransmitter disease. Based on the history and symptoms experienced by this woman, (B) Internuclear ophthalmoplegia which of the following is the most likely cause of her medical con- (C) One-and-a-half syndrome dition? Collaterals of ascending anterior (ventral) trigeminothalamic (D) Multiple sclerosis fibers that contribute to the vomiting reflex would most likely (E) Parkinson disease project into which of the following brainstem structures? Which of the following represents the most likely location of the (B) Facial nucleus neurotransmitter dysfunction in this woman? The topographical arrangement of fibers in the medial lemniscus at (E) Within the cerebellum mid-olivary levels is such that the sensory information being con- veyed by those fibers located most anterior (ventral) in this bundle 61. Which of the following represents the neurotransmitter most will eventually terminate in which of the following structures? A 17-year-old boy presents with the major complaint that he is “sometimes I see two of everything, but not always”. The exami- having trouble playing baseball on the high school varsity team. MRI shows a small lesion suggesting an area of de- tion reveals a superior right quadrantanopia. Which of the following represents the lesion in a position consistent with the visual field loss. A 20-year-old man is brought to the emergency department from (D) Upper portions of the optic radiations in the left pari- the site of a motorcycle accident. The examination reveals multi- etal lobe ple head injuries and a broken humerus. Cranial CT shows a basal (E) Upper portions of the optic radiations in the right pari- skull fracture extending through the jugular foramen. Assuming etal lobe that the nerve or nerves that traverse this opening are damaged, which of the following deficits would most likely be seen in this 68.

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Increased breathing is perhaps the single most obvious Regular exercise often buy 250mg grifulvin v, but not always purchase grifulvin v 250mg otc, reduces resting physiological response to acute dynamic exercise cheap grifulvin v 250 mg amex. Responders typically show diminished rest- work intensity and then supralinearly beyond that point. In obesity-linked hypertension, declining insulin secre- goals of oxygen intake and carbon dioxide removal. Nonetheless, because some obese people who exercise and lose weight show no blood pressure changes, exercise Metabolic Demands, but the Exact remains adjunctive therapy for hypertension. Control Mechanisms Is Unknown Exercise increases oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide Pregnancy Shares Many Cardiovascular production by working muscles, and the pulmonary re- Characteristics With the Trained State sponse is precisely calibrated to maintain homeostasis of these gases in arterial blood. In mild or moderate work, ar- The physiological demands and adaptations of pregnancy in some ways are similar to those of chronic exercise. Both of them increase blood volume, cardiac output, skin blood flow, and caloric expenditure. Acutely, it increases body core temperature, causes splanchnic (hence, uterine and umbilical) vasoconstriction, and alters the endocrinological milieu; chronically, it increases caloric requirements. This last de- mand may be devastating if food shortages exist: the super- imposed caloric demands of successful pregnancy and lacta- tion are estimated at 80,000 kcal. Given adequate nutritional resources, however, there is little evidence of other damaging effects of maternal exercise on fetal development. The failure of exercise to harm well-nourished pregnant women may re- late in part to the increased maternal and fetal mass and blood volume, which reduces specific heat loads, moderates vaso- constriction in the uterine and umbilical circulations, and di- minishes the maternal exercise capacity. At least in previously active women, even the most in- tense concurrent exercise regimen (unless associated with The dependence of minute ventilation on FIGURE 30. Ventilation or embryogenesis, although the combined effects of exer- rises linearly with intensity until exercise nears maximal levels. CHAPTER 30 Exercise Physiology 557 terial PO2 (and, hence, oxygen content), PCO2, and pH all The ventilatory control mechanisms in exercise remain remain unchanged from resting levels (Table 30. Where there are stimuli—such as in mixed ve- respiratory muscles accomplish this severalfold increase in nous blood, which is hypercapnic and hypoxic in propor- ventilation primarily by increasing tidal volume, without tion to exercise intensity—there are seemingly no recep- provoking sensations of dyspnea. Conversely, where there are receptors—the carotid More intense exercise presents the lungs with tougher bodies, the lung parenchyma or airways, the brainstem challenges. Near the halfway point from rest to maximal bathed by cerebrospinal fluid—no stimulus proportional to dynamic work, lactic acid formed in working muscles be- the exercise demand exists. This point, which de- chemoreceptor is immersed in increasing alkalinity as exer- pends on the type of work involved and the person’s cise intensifies, a consequence of blood-brain barrier per- training status, is called the lactate threshold. Perhaps exercise concentration gradually rises with work intensity, as respiratory control parallels cardiovascular control, with a more and more muscle fibers must rely on anaerobic me- central command proportional to muscle activity directly tabolism. Almost fully dissociated, lactic acid causes stimulating the respiratory center and feedback modulation metabolic acidosis. During exercise, healthy lungs re- from the lung, respiratory muscles, chest wall mechanore- spond to lactic acidosis by further increasing ventilation, ceptors, and carotid body chemoreceptors. Through a range of exercise Unchanged by Training levels, the pH effects of lactic acid are fully compensated The effects of training on the pulmonary system are mini- by the respiratory system; however, eventually in the mal. Lung diffusing capacity, lung mechanics, and even hardest work—near-exhaustion—ventilatory compensa- lung volumes change little, if at all, with training. The wide- tion becomes only partial, and both pH and arterial PCO2 spread assumption that training improves vital capacity is may fall well below resting values (see Table 30. Tidal false; even exercise designed specifically to increase inspi- volume continues to increase until pulmonary stretch re- ratory muscle strength elevates vital capacity by only 3%. The demands placed on respiratory muscles increase their Frequency increases at high tidal volume produce the re- endurance, an adaptation that may reduce the sensation of mainder of the ventilatory volume increases. Nonetheless, the primary respiratory Hyperventilation relative to carbon dioxide produc- changes with training are secondary to lower lactate pro- tion in heavy exercise helps maintain arterial oxygena- duction that reduces ventilatory demands at previously tion. The blood returned to the lungs during exercise is heavy absolute work levels. Because the pulmonary arterial PO2 is re- In Lung Disease, Respiratory Limitations May Be duced in exercise, blood shunted past ventilated areas can Evidenced by Shortness of Breath or Decreased profoundly depress systemic arterial oxygen content. Oxygen Content of Arterial Blood Other than having a diminished oxygen content, pul- monary arterial blood flow (cardiac output) rises during Any compromise of lung or chest wall function is much exercise. In compensation, ventilation rises faster than more apparent during exercise than at rest. One hallmark of cardiac output: The ventilation-perfusion ratio of the lung disease is dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing) dur- lung rises from near 1 at rest to greater than 4 with stren- ing exertion, when this exertion previously was unprob- uous exercise (see Table 30.

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