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By J. Tuwas. Arlington Baptist College.

Machine-readable semantic content is added by the so-called HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) buy 15mg prevacid fast delivery. The RIM is an all-encompassing look at the entire scope of healthcare containing more than 100 classes with more than 800 attributes discount prevacid 30 mg line. Similar to HL7 v3 30 mg prevacid, the European ENV 13606 standard as defined by the TC 251 group of the CEN addresses document architecture, object models and information messages. For a more detailed discussion on healthcare infor- mation standards see Spyrou, Bamidis, Chouvarda, Gogou, Tryfon, and Maglaveras (2002). Another approach to imprint structure on free text is the application of ontologies to explicitly formalize logical and semantic relationships. The W3C consortium has recently (as of May 2004) recommended the Web Ontology Language (OWL) as a standard to represent semantic content of web information and can therefore be seen as a major step towards the “semantic Web” (Berners-Lee, Hendler, & Lassila, 2001). In the medical domain, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) uses a similar technology to represent biomedical knowledge within a semantic network (Kashyap, 2003). Once an ontology for a certain domain is available, it can be used as a template to transfer the therein contained explicit knowledge to corresponding terms of free text from that domain. For example, the term “blepharitis” is defined as “inflammation of the eyelids” in the UMLS. However with knowledge from the UMLS, these documents could be marked as relevant to the query. However, the tagging of free text with matching counterparts from an ontology is either a cost intensive human labor or requires advanced natural language processing methods. We shall see below, how computational approaches could address the problem of adding semantics to free narrative text. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Interactive Information Retrieval Towards Effective Knowledge Management 57 Biomedical Publications For most of the time in human history, the majority of knowledge acquired by mankind was passed on by the means of the written word. It is a natural scientific process to formulate new insights and findings and pass them to the community by publishing. It is not only expanding at growing speed, but also increasing in diversification, resulting in highly specialized domains of expertise. National Library of Medicine (NLM) has become the standard bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, the healthcare system, and the preclinical sciences. The majority of publications in MEDLINE are regular journals and a small number of newspapers and magazines. The database is updated on a regular daily basis from Tuesdays to Saturdays and on an irregular basis in November and December. At the time of this writing, MEDLINE contains approximately 12 million references to articles from over 37,000 international journals dating back to 1966. In 1980 there were about 100,000 articles added to the database, and in 2002 the number increased to over 470,000 newly added entries. That means, currently over 50 new biomedical articles are published on an hourly basis. Clearly, no human is able to digest one scientific article per minute 24 hours a day, seven days a week. But the access to the knowledge within is lively important nonetheless: “The race to a new gene or drug is now increasingly dependent on how quickly a scientist can keep track of the voluminous information online to capture the relevant picture … hidden within the latest research articles” (Ng & Wong, 1999). Not surprisingly, a whole discipline has emerged which covers the field of “information retrieval” from unstructured document collections, which takes us to the next section. Computational Approaches to Handle Text Databases The area of information retrieval (IR) is as old as man uses libraries to store and retrieve books. With the advent of the World Wide Web, the desire to find relevant and useful information grew to a public need. Consequently, the difficulties to localize the desired information “have attracted renewed interest in IR and its techniques as promising solutions. As a result, almost overnight, IR has gained a place with other technologies at the center of the stage” (Baeza-Yates & Ribeiro-Neto, 1999). Several approaches have shown that advanced information retrieval techniques can be used to significantly alleviate the cumbersome literature research and sometimes even discover previously unknown knowledge (Mack & Hehenberger, 2002).

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What is the most crew has complained of being light-headed and likely adverse outcome if the woman began taking tired occasionally at work and that if it occurs purchase prevacid 30mg line, it the drug at this time? Exposure to one such pollutant generic prevacid 15mg free shipping, (B) Insecticide packaging area carbon monoxide cheap prevacid 30 mg with visa, can result in which of the follow- (C) Label printing area ing conditions? The exposed work- fection due to impairment in phagocyte function ers were agitated and irritable and said to be having (C) Exacerbation of asthmatic episodes because of difficulty walking in a coordinated manner. Some bronchoconstriction feel quite hot as if they are burning up, and one had (D) Hypoxia due to displacing oxygen from hemo- a seizure. A 4-year-old boy is taken to the emergency depart- (B) Insecticide packaging area ment by his parents in the afternoon the first (C) Label printing area Saturday in June. The symptoms are characteristic of a person generally low in toxicity and few poisonings have chronically exposed to vapors released from ele- been reported; however, seizures are a symptom. While the tech- clear up after work are often due to inhalation ex- nician may be exposed to solvent vapors released posure of volatile or aerosol materials. The solvents from dental adhesives, the symptoms are not char- used in printing inks cause light-headedness and se- acteristic of this type of exposure. The symptoms are not those of herbicide ex- would not be expected because these are not symp- posure and insecticide exposure. The tient and not the technician would be most likely symptoms are referable to an acute high exposure exposed to quantities high enough to cause any to an organochlorine or pyrethroid insecticide. The technician has little exposure to li- While organochlorine pesticides are not used in this docaine, and the symptoms are not typical of lido- country, they are manufactured for export. The solvents between days 25 and 40 of gestation, and this pa- in printing ink would cause CNS depression. The fetus is at much greater risk for death if exposure occurs dur- SUPPLEMENTAL READING ing the first 2 weeks of gestation. Poisoning Materials Toxicology: Clinical Principles of with compound 1080 (fluorocitrate) inhibits mito- Environmental Health. The paint used originally in older because compared to her kindergarten classmates, homes usually contains lead. Recently the child has complained of abdominal Small children may exhibit pica, which is the pain and has had occasional constipation. About 3 compulsive eating of nonfood items, and this can years ago the parents moved into a 75-year-old occur during times of stress, such as the separa- house in the inner city and have been renovating it tion of parents. Within the past year, the parents adequately after removing the paint, it is proba- separated and the father moved out of the house. There is evidence that at blood lead levels of about 10 g/dL, children are at risk for devel- opmental impairment. Other tests that may be useful include examination for microcytic anemia and erythrocyte stippling and radiographic exam- ination of the long bones for lead lines. These principles were developed PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION from a pluralistic, albeit North American, framework. AND FRAMEWORK Although not every problem will involve all four princi- The relationship between physicians, scientists, and the ples of bioethics, an understanding of the principles of pharmaceutical industry is a mutually advantageous autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice will one that is fraught with ethical complexity. This negatively affect others, individuals with the capacity to chapter provides a conceptual framework for bioethical make their own decisions should be free to do as they analysis, presents some cases that illustrate ethical prob- wish, even if their choices are risky or harmful to them- lems, and delineates some guidelines for consideration. The principle also entails that persons with di- Bioethics is the study of ethical issues associated with minished autonomy, such as those who are illiterate or providing health care or pursuing biomedical research. Most approaches to bioethics in the United States are Many moral obligations for professionals engaged in secular in nature and presuppose no particular religious scientific research or health care are derived from or theological perspective. Similarly, bioethical analysis stands independent of on the principle that individuals are the appropriate de- legal analysis. As the primary moral principle to reflect a societal consensus on issues and are estab- quoted in medical codes and oaths, the principle of lished to set a minimum standard of behavior. For example, concerns about acceptable actions, religious beliefs, and knowledge of beneficence motivate physicians, pharmacologists, phar- the law are frequently insufficient to guide moral ac- macists, and clinical investigators, all of whom share the tion, in the realm of health care. Solving problems that goal of conducting studies that will ultimately benefit arise in the scientific and clinical contexts requires society by producing or refining effective treatments.

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